Faultierfell als Schmetterlingsheimat

Faultiere haben ja bekanntlich einen sprichwörtlich faulen Lebensstil. Meist hängen sie mit dem Rücken nach unten irgendwo im süd- oder mittelamerikanischen Urwald am Ast eines Baumes. Da sie extrem langsam sind und sich kaum vom Baum fortbewegen, haben sich drei Kleinschmetterlingsarten diese Tiere als überaus gemütlichen Lebensraum auserkoren.

Faultier in Panama - © photographee2000 - Fotolia.com

Faultier in Panama – © photographee2000 – Fotolia.com

Die Faultiermotte (Bradypodicola hahneli) verbringt – wie ihr Name ja bereits andeutet – fast ihr gesamtes Leben auf einem Faultier. Sie paaren sich im Haarkleid von Faultieren und legen dort auch ihre Eier ab. Die Raupen leben ebenfalls auf dem meist herumhängenden Säugetier bis sie sich verpuppen. Die Raupen ernähren sich von winzigen Hautschuppen und den Blaualgen, die in feinen Rillen der Faultierhaaren wachsen. Die Blaualgen sind übrigens für die graugrünen Fellfarbe des Faultiers verantwortlich. Eine hervorragende Tarnfarbe, sie läßt das Tier optisch nahezu mit seiner Umgebung verschmelzen.

Faultiere leben nicht nur langsam. Auch ihre Verdauung ist ihrem Lebenstempo angepaßt. Sie müssen nur alle ein bis zwei Wochen ihren Baum verlassen, um sich zu erleichtern. Im Zeitlupentempo klettern sie auf den Boden und suchen die immer gleiche „Faultiertoilette“ auf. Diese Toilettengänge nutzt ein anderer im Faultierfell lebender Kleinschmetterling, um seine Eier in den Exkrementen abzulegen.

Den schlüpfenden Raupen dienen unverdaute Pflanzenreste und Bakterien im Kot als Nahrung. Wenn dann die Falter geschlüpt sind, fliegen sie bei einem weiteren Latrinengang ins Fell des Faultieres, um sich dort einen Geschlechtspartner zu suchen und sich zu paaren. Diese Schmetterlinge fliegen nur noch, um einmal von den Exkrementen auf das Faultier zu gelangen und dann nochmal für den umgekehrten Weg!

Die Falterarten stört es nicht im mindestens, dass sich ihr Lebensraum ab und an einmal bewegt. Sie nutzen gern das Zusammentreffen zweier Faultiere zur Paarung gern dazu, mit den Faltern des anderen Faultieres neue Lebensgemeinschaften zu bilden. Die Umsiedlung von Schmetterlingen von einem Tier zu einem anderen dient auch der Erweiterung des Genpools. Inzucht wird so wirksam verhindert.

In Brasilien wird Faultieren intensiv gejagt. Bei der Langsamkeit der Tiere sind sie ja leider leichte Beute. Das Fleisch soll wie Hammel schmecken, es ist sehr fettarm. Das sehr strohige Fell wird außerdem von Reitern als kühle Satteldecke geschätzt.

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Über Martina Berg (450 Artikel)
Bogenschützin, Antiquarin, Bloggerin und Fotografin aus dem Lipperland. Bogenschützen finden auf www.bogensport-deutschland.de interessante Informationen und Bogensport-Artikel.

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