Das Leben der Gehäuseschnecken 2

Teil zwei meines Berichts über unsere häufigsten Gehäuseschnecken: die Bänderschnecke und die Weinbergschnecke. Teil 1 finden Sie hier.

Die Paarungszeit der Schnecken beginnt im Frühsommer. Schnecken sind Zwitter, sie sind Weiblein und Männlein zugleich. Jedes Tier hat sowohl Eier als auch Samen in seinen Geschlechtsorganen. Weinbergschnecken und Bänderschnecken werden mit etwa 3 Jahren geschlechtsreif.

Weinbergschnecken beim Liebes-Vorspiel- Foto: © Martina Berg

Weinbergschnecken beim Liebes-Vorspiel- Foto: © Martina Berg

Vor der eigentlichen Paarung zeigen Schnecken einander durch einen sogenannten Liebespfeil ihre Paarungsbereitschaft. Dieser aus Kalk bestehende, etwa 5 mm lange Pfeil wird in die Fußsohle des Partners gestoßen, wo er aber nicht steckenbleibt. Danach tritt an der rechten Kopfseite der Begattungsteil hervor. Mit dieser weißlichen Ausstülpung übergeben sie der anderen Schnecke den Samen in die Geschlechtsöffnung, die sich ebenfalls an der rechten Kopfseite befindet.

 

Weinbergschnecken beim Liebes-Vorspiel - Foto: © Martina Berg

Links gut sichtbar: das ausgestülpte Begattungsteil – Foto: © Martina Berg

Weinbergschnecken sind übrigens sehr ausdauernde Liebhaber: ihr Vorspiel kann mehrere Stunden dauern und nach der eigentlichen Paarung schlafen sie oft mit den Fußsohlen aneinandergeklebt erschöpft ein.




Die Eier reifen innerhalb von sechs bis acht Wochen nach der Paarung heran. Die legende Schnecke sucht sich einen ruhigen Platz an dem sie mit ihrem Fuß ein Loch gräbt. In diese Höhle legt sie 30 bis 60 winzig kleine, milchglasfarbene Eier ab. Diese Arbeit ist sehr anstrengend und dauert häufig einen ganzen Tag. Danach überläßt sie die Eier ihrem Schicksal – so etwas wie Brutpflege kennen Schnecken nicht.

Innerhalb von etwa zwei Wochen entwickeln sich nun die Jungschnecken, die mit einem fertigen Gehäuse aus den Eiern schlüpfen. Zunächst fressen sie die kalkhaltige Erde ihrer Geburtshöhle. Erst nach dei weiteren Wochen graben sie sich dann endlich an die Oberfläche. Dann dauert es noch einige Wochen, bis sie dann Pflanzen fressen.

Schneckenbaby - Foto: © Martina Berg

Schneckenbaby – Foto: © Martina Berg

Die Häuschen der Jungschnecken sind anfangs noch durchsichtig. So kann man sehr schön beobachten, wie sich der winzige Schneckenkörper ins Schneckenhaus zurückzieht. Die Gehäuse haben zunächst nur zwei Windungen. Bei ausgewachsenen Schnecken sind es vier bis fünf Windungen.

Das Gehäuse der Wrinbergschnecke wächst verhältnismäßig schnell und verfärbt sich ins Graubraune. Bänderschencken hingegen wachsen nur langsam und ihr Gehäuse bleibt recht lange durchsichtig-beige. Erst im Spätherbst entwickeln sich aus den nahezu farblosen Schalen die schönsten rosafarbenen, gelbfarbenen oder gestreiften Häuschen. Die Farbvielfalt bei den Bänderschnecken ist sehr vielfältig.

Weinbergschnecken sind recht langlebig, sie können in der Natur 8 Jahre alt werden. Bei Geheschnecken sind auch schon 20 Jahren nachgewiesen. Die viel kleineren Bänderschnecken können in menschlicher Obhut ein Alter von etwa 9 Jahren erreichen. In freier Wildbahn werden sie etwa 4 Jahre alt.

Weinbergschnecke im Trockenschlaf an einem Baumstamm - Foto: © Martina Berg

Weinbergschnecke im Trockenschlaf an einem Baumstamm – Foto: © Martina Berg

Bei Wintereinbruch graben sich die Schnecken in die Erde ein oder suchen sich ein warmes, sicheres Plätzchen in einem Laubhaufen. Die Gehäuseöffnung schützen sie mit einer Schutzschicht, die sie aus Schleim bilden. Dann halten sie einen Winterschlaf, der drei bis vier Monate dauert.

Weinbergschnecken bilden zum Schutz einen etwas einen Millimeter dicken Kalkdeckel. Dieser hält die Kälte ab und verhindert die Austrocknung der Schnecke. Wird es kälter, dann zieht sich die Schnecke immer weiter in ihr Haus zurück und verstärkt den Deckel mit weiteren Schichten. Bis zu sechsmal kann dies geschehen.

So machen ihnen selbst Temperaturen bis weit unter null Grad nichts aus. Während des Winterschlafes sind die Lebensfunktionen einer Schnecke stark reduziert. Sie atmen nur noch sehr langsam. Ganz ohne Luft geht es aber nicht und so hat jeder Deckel eine Art Luftloch, das allerdings mit bloßem Auge nicht zu erkennen ist. Den Winter über zehren die Schnecken nun von ihrer Körpersubstanz und verlieren bis zum Frühjahr sehr stark an Gewicht.

Wenn es dann im Frühling wieder wäremer wird und die Erde vom Regen locker wird, wachen die Schnecken auf und kriechen aus ihrem Versteck hervor. Die Weinbergschnecken brechen den schützenden Kalkdeckel mit dem Fuß auf und lassen die nun überflüssige „Tür“ einfach liegen. Dann suchen sie völlig augehundert sofort nach saftigem Grünzeug.




Die Bänderschnecken haben kein so festes Schutzdeckelchen, das zurückbleibt. Deshalb kann man bei ihnen später nicht sehen, wo sie überwintert haben. Nicht alle Schnecken überleben den Winter. Möglicherweise waren sie nicht fett genug oder der Winter war einfach zu hart oder der gewählte Überweinterungsort war ungeeignet. Und so verhungern oder erfrieren oder vertrocknen diese Tiere dann.

Minischencke untrwegs - Foto: © Martina Berg

Minischnecke unterwegs – Foto: © Martina Berg

Die Überlebenden müssen nun schnell wieder an Gewicht zunehmen, um sich an einem neuen Schneckenjahr erfreuen zu können. Sie streifen nun wieder durch die Gegend und hinterlassen ihre glitzenden Schleimspuren. Und im Spätsommer sorgen sie wieder für eine neue Schneckengeneration.

Hier geht es zu Teil 1 dieses Beitrages.

Ihnen gefällt dieser Beitrag? Dann teilen Sie ihn doch bitte in Ihren sozialen Netzwerken – und folgen Sie mir auf meiner Facebookseite!

Über Martina Berg (450 Artikel)
Bogenschützin, Antiquarin, Bloggerin und Fotografin aus dem Lipperland. Bogenschützen finden auf www.bogensport-deutschland.de interessante Informationen und Bogensport-Artikel.

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