Das Leben der Gehäuseschnecken 1

Schnecken sind ja gerade bei Gärtnern nicht sonderlich beliebt und viele Menschen finden gerade die schleimigen Nacktschnecken eklig. Das sind übrigens auch die, die im Garten gern den Salat und die frisch gesetzten Blumen abfressen.

Nacktschnecken - Foto: © Martina Berg

Nacktschnecken – Foto: © Martina Berg

Leider werden häufig auch die Gehäuseschnecken mit den Nacktschnecken „in einen Topf geworfen“ – zumindest was die negativen Eigenschaften anbelangt. Dabei ernähren sich Bänderschnecken und Weinbergschnecken nur von weichen, welken Pflanzenteilen und Algenbewüchsen.

In diesem Bericht über das Leben der Gehäuseschnecken möchte ich mit den Vorurteilen über diese Tiere aufräumen. Verfolgen Sie mit mir zusammen das Leben unserer Gehäuseschnecken im Laufe eines Jahres. Sie werden staunen und diese faszinierenden Lebewesen bald mit anderen Augen sehen.

Bänderschnecke auf Weinbergschnecke - Foto: © Martina Berg

Bänderschnecke auf Weinbergschnecke – Foto: © Martina Berg

Zunächst eine kurze Vorstellung unserer zwei Hauptakteure:




Die Bänderschnecke (Cepaea) ist die bekannteste Gehäuseschnecke Deutschlands. Sie hat ein etwa 2 cm großes Häuschen, das sehr unterschiedlich gefärbt sein kann: gelb, rosarot, bräunlich, mit oder ohne schwarze Streifen. Ihr Körper hat in etwa die Farbe menschlicher Haut. Man findet sie in jedem Garten und fast jedem Fleckchen, auf dem Grünes wächst.

Gartenbänderschnecke - Foto: © Martina Berg

Gartenbänderschnecke – Foto: © Martina Berg

Wesentlich größer ist mit einem Gehäusedurchmesser von 5 bis 7 Zentimetern und einer Körperlänge von bis zu zehn Zentimetern die Weinbergschnecke (Helix pomatia). Die Farbe ihres Hauses reicht von hellgrau bis dunkelbraun, der Körper ist beigefarben, manchmal auch grau.

Weinbergschnecke - Foto: © Martina Berg

Weinbergschnecke – Foto: © Martina Berg

Die Schneckengehäuse sind recht hart, sie bestehen aus Kalk. Ohne ihr Gehäuse können Gehäuseschnecken nicht überleben. Kleinere Beschädigungen können sie reparieren. Sobald aber das dünne Häutchen unter der Schale beschädigt wird, muß die Schnecke sterben. In ihr Haus zieht sich eine Schnecke zurück, um sich vor Fressfeinden, Trockenheit und Kälte zu schützen.

Erst im Alter von drei Jahren ist eine Schnecke ausgewachsen. Bis dahin baut sie ständig an ihrem Haus. Die schmalen Zuwachsstreifen kann man deutlich sehen, wie sehen wie Rillen aus. Ein neu gebildeter Hausteil ist eine Zeitlang durchsichtig und noch weich und empfindlich. Ein harter, etwas nach außen zeigender Rand ist das Zeichen für das Ende des Wachstums.



Der Schneckenkörper außerhalb des Gehäuses besteht aus dem Kopf mit einem langen und einem kurzen Fühlerpaar, dem Fuß mit dem Schwanzteil, einer Hautfalte zwischen dem Körper und dem Schneckenhaus und dem Körper mit der gut sichtbaren Atemöffnung. In den oberen, längeren Fühlern sitzen die Augen, die man als schwarze Punkte erkennen kann.

Bänderschnecke an trockener Pflanze - Foto: © Martina Berg

Bänderschnecke an trockener Pflanze – Foto: © Martina Berg

Berühren Sie doch einmal die Fühler einer Schnecke, dann können Sie sehr gut beobachten, wie sie sich zurückzieht: zuerst verschwindet der Kopf. Dann folgt der Körper. Zuletzt zieht sich der Mantel über der Schnecke zusammen. Das Herauskriechen erfolgt nach dem Motto „Last in – first out“.

Schnecken gleiten über einen Schleimfilm, der von einer Fußdrüse erzeugt wird und ganz vorne, direkt unterhalb der Mundöffnung austritt. Mit wellenförmigen Bewegungen der Fußsohle können sie so selbst über harte und scharfe Gegenstände kriechen, ohne sich zu verletzen. Sicherlich haben Sie schon einmal Filmaufnahmen gesehen, die eine Schnecke zeigen, die über eine Rasierklinge kriecht.

Weinbergschnecken halten sich am liebsten an schattigen und feuchten Orten auf. Um der Sonne zu entgehen, sind sie meist nachts unterwegs. Die kleineren Bänderschnecken sieht man auch oft tagsüber auf Büschen und Bäumen. Warmes Regenwetter lieben alle Gehäuseschnecken, dann sind sie sehr aktiv.

Schnecken haben viele Fressfeinde und sind daher sehr gefährdet. Für Singdrosseln, Mäuse, Igel und Laufenten sind sie leckere Nahrung. Auch wir Menschen sind Schneckenfeinde: im Garten verstreuen wir Schneckenkorn, an dem nicht nur die gefrässigen Nacktschnecken verenden. Weinbergschnecken landen zudem auch als Delikatessen auf manchen Tellern. In Deutschland und einigen anderen europäischen Ländern stehen Weinbergschnecken mittlerweile unter Naturschutz.

Die Aktivitäten der Gehäuseschnecken werden von teilweise recht langen Ruhephasen unterbrochen: der Sommerruhe (auch Trockenstarre genannt) bei besonders trockener, warmer Witterung und dem Winterschlaf, der drei bis vier Monate dauert. Im Spätsommer müssen Schnecken sehr viel fressen, um den Winterschlaf gut zu überstehen. Denn während dieser Zeit leben sie nur von ihrer Substanz.



Neben allerhand Blättern, Grünzeug und verfaulten Pflanzenteilen fressen Schnecken auch Erde. Den nötigen Kalk für ihren Gehäuseaufbau raspeln sie von Steinen und Mauern ab. Das Grün wird zunächst vom Rand her angeknabbert. Im Maul wird die Nahrung dann mit der „Radula“ zerkleinert. Das ist eine mit zahllosen spitzen Zähnchen gespickte Reibplatte auf der Zunge.

Hier geht es zum zweiten Teil.

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Über Martina Berg (450 Artikel)
Bogenschützin, Antiquarin, Bloggerin und Fotografin aus dem Lipperland. Bogenschützen finden auf www.bogensport-deutschland.de interessante Informationen und Bogensport-Artikel.

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