Kegelrobben-Watching auf Helgoland

Auf Helgolands Düne können Naturliebhaber im Winter zwischen November und Januar ein einmaliges Schauspiel erleben: bei Kälte und Sturm bringen die Kegelrobben ihren Nachwuchs zur Welt. Und in diesem Jahr waren es Ende Januar bereits 244 Jungtiere – und die Wurfzeit dauert noch bis Ende Februar.

Kegelrobben auf Helgolands Düne - Foto: © Martina Berg

Kegelrobben auf Helgolands Düne – Foto: © Martina Berg

Der Herr der Robben – Seehundjäger Rolf Blädel

Rolf Blädel ist der „Herr der Robben“ auf Helgoland. Zwar trägt er den traditionellen Titel „Robbenjäger“, doch ist er nicht für die Jagd sondern für den Schutz der Tiere zuständig. Der pensionierte Polizist ist während der Wurfzeit täglich auf der Düne (das ist eine etwa 0,7 Quadratkilometer große Insel vor Helgoland) und markiert die Neugeborenen mit einer grünen Erkennungsmarke, die an der Hinterflosse befestigt wird. Rolf Blädel betreut die Kolonie, nimmt auch schon einmal erkrankte Tiere aus dem Bestand und führt interessierte Besucher zu den Tieren. Leidenschaftlich erzählt der begeisterte Robbenjäger dabei von den Tieren und seinen Erlebnissen.

Kegelrobbe - Foto: © Martina Berg

Kegelrobbe – Foto: © Martina Berg

Ihren Namen erhielt die Kegelrobbe (Halichoerus grypus) von der kegelförmigen Form ihrer Zähne und nicht, wie meist zu lesen ist, von ihrer Kopfform. Sie ist neben dem Seehund die zweite in Deutschland vorkommende Robbenart und das größte bei uns lebende Raubtier. Kegelrobben-Bullen können bis zu 300 Kilogramm schwer werden und erreichen eine Länge von 2,30 Metern.

Kegelrobbe auf Helgoland

Kegelrobbe – Foto: © Martina Berg

Männchen und Weibchen lassen sich meist recht gut unterscheiden, denn in der Regel haben die Bullen ein dunkles Fell mit hellen Flecken und die Kühe ein helles Grundfell mit schwarzen Flecken. Es gibt aber sowohl bei Weibchen und Männchen Ausnahmen von dieser Regel: völlig schwarze und auch fast weiße Tiere sind gar nicht so selten.



Kegelrobben bringen ihren Nachwuchs im Winter zur Welt

Kegelrobben bringen ihren Nachwuchs in der kältesten Jahreszeit von Ende November bis Anfang Januar zur Welt. Die Neugeborenen sind recht schlank und bringen etwa 10 Kilogramm auf die Waage. Solange sie ihr weißes Embryonalfell (Lanugo) tragen, können sie nicht schwimmen. Sie werden von ihren Müttern häufig stundenlang allein gelassen, während diese im Meer jagen. Daher sollte man nicht gleich bei jedem allein auf dem Strand liegenden Robbenbaby annehmen, dass es von der Mutter verlassen wurde. Erst wenn es über einen längeren Zeitraum herzzerreißend jammert, sollte man den Robbenjäger alarmieren. Die Telefonnummer hängt auf der Düne und auf Helgoland überall aus und fast jeder Helgoländer kennt sie. Bitte fassen sie ein solches Tier nicht an, Robbenbisse können sehr schmerzhaft und selbst bei den kleinsten Heulern gefährlich sein.

Kegelrobben-Baby - Foto: © Martina Berg

Kegelrobben-Baby – Foto: © Martina Berg

Aber die allermeisten Tiere werden von ihren Müttern liebevoll umsorgt und 15 bis 20 Tage lang gesäugt. Durch die überaus fetthaltige Muttermilch nimmt eine Jungrobbe zwischen 1,5 bis 2 Kilogramm pro Tag zu. Am Ende der Stillzeit ist die kleine Kegelrobbe rund und dick und wird jetzt von der Mutter einfach auf dem Strand liegengelassen. Während des nun beginnenden Fellwechsels muß es von seinen Fettreserven zehren. Es kann bis zu drei Wochen dauern, bis die Robbe zum ersten Mal ins Meer robbt.

Kegelrobben-Baby mit Mutter - Foto: © Martina Berg

Kegelrobben-Baby mit Mutter – Foto: © Martina Berg

Seit 2001 gibt es eine Kegelrobbenkolonie auf der Düne vor Helgoland

Erst 1998 tauchte die erste Kegelrobbe auf der Düne vor Helgoland auf und 2001 erblickten die ersten Jungtiere hier das Licht der Welt. Seitdem werden es jedes Jahr mehr – nachdem 2010/2011 mit 100 Robbengeburten bereits ein Rekordjahr war, wurde diese Zahl mit über 244 Babyrobben diesen Winter wieder weit übertroffen.

Das hier „pures Gold“ am Strand liegt (Zitat Rolf Blädel), hat man auf Helgoland längst erkannt. So gibt es während der Wurfsaison günstige Pauschalangebote der Kurverwaltung zum „Robben-Watching“, spezielle Führungen durch den Seehundjäger und Fotoreisen. Trotzdem ist Helgoland zu dieser Zeit doch (noch) recht „touristenarm“.

Kegelrobbe - Foto: © Martina Berg

Kegelrobbe – Foto: © Martina Berg

Die Robben und auch die Seehunde haben sich längst an die merkwürdigen Zweibeiner gewöhnt, die ihnen im Winter mit Spektiven und Fotoapparaten aufs Fell rücken und im Sommer mit ihnen den Strand und das Wasser teilen. Und auch der Fluglärm des Flugplatzes auf der Düne stört sie nicht im geringsten.




Trotzdem sollte man einen Sicherheitsabstand von mindestens 30 Metern zu den Tieren einhalten. Besonders säugende Mutterrobben mögen es nicht besonders, wenn man ihrem Baby zu nahe kommt. Und auf dem Kieselstrand im Norden der Düne sind die Robben schneller als jeder Mensch!

Reisetipps für „Robben-Watcher“

Nach Helgoland kommt man in den Wintermonaten nur von Cuxhaven aus mit einem Schiff der Reederei Cassen Eils oder von Bremerhaven aus mit dem Flugzeug. Das Schiff benötigt circa 2,5 Stunden, der Flieger 25 Minuten. Aber gerade im Winter kann einem das Wetter einen Strich durch die Reisepläne machen – planen Sie daher Verzögerungen oder gar Verschiebungen ein.

Die Funny Girl vor der Abfahrt in Cuxhaven - Foto: © Martina Berg

Die Funny Girl vor der Abfahrt in Cuxhaven – Foto: © Martina Berg

Zur Düne verkehrt von Helgoland aus ein Börteboot als Fähre. Ab 7.00 Uhr fährt es stündlich ab, die letzte Rückfahrt von der Düne nach Helgoland sollte man möglichst nicht verpassen – sie erfolgt um 16.00 Uhr. Auf der Düne ist das Flughafenrestaurant bis 15.30 Uhr geöffnet – hier kann man sich bei einem Kaffee und einem Imbiß zwischendurch gut aufwärmen.

Helgoland ist gerade für Natur- und Tierfreunde und speziell auch Tierfotografen im Winter eine Reise wert. Man sollte allerdings warme und windundurchlässige Kleidung und festes, wasserdichtes Schuhwerk einpacken.

Quellen und weiterführende Informationen:




Über Martina Berg (450 Artikel)
Bogenschützin, Antiquarin, Bloggerin und Fotografin aus dem Lipperland. Bogenschützen finden auf www.bogensport-deutschland.de interessante Informationen und Bogensport-Artikel.

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